Virus remains a global threat - the fight against diseases greatly improved
Jan. 24, 2008, Rome - The recent avian influenza outbreaks in 15 countries showed that the H5N1 virus is a global threat and requires close monitoring and strong control efforts, according to FAO.
Since December 2007, Bangladesh, Benin, China, Egypt, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Myanmar, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Turkey and Vietnam have confirmed new outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry stocks. Except for a few cases in wild birds in China, Poland and the United Kingdom, confirmed most of the outbreaks occurred in domestic poultry, including chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks.
"Overall, a lot of progress has been made in the maintenance of the H5N1 virus of bird flu under control. Today, we are better prepared to cope with the disease than we were three years ago," said FAO Chief Veterinary Officer Joseph Domenech. "The surveillance, early detection and immediate response has improved and many countries are newly infected were able to eliminate the virus from poultry."
"But the crisis of the H5N1 avian influenza is far from over and remains particularly worrying in Indonesia, Bangladesh and Egypt, where the virus has become deeply rooted despite major efforts to control," said Domenech.
Countries should continue to monitor closely the evolving situation. "The virus has not become more contagious to humans, but has managed to persist in parts of Asia, Africa and Europe. It can still trigger a human influenza pandemic," warned Mr. Domenech.
Commenting on the different countries, FAO's Chief Veterinary Officer said India fights to keep the worst-ever outbreak of avian flu in West Bengal under control.
Indonesia remains one of the countries most affected, with 31 of the 33 infected provinces since 2004, many severely. The continuation of the number of human cases is worrying.
"We found that the H5N1 virus new strains of avian influenza viruses have recently emerged in Indonesia with the possible effect that vaccines currently in use can not be fully protect chickens against the disease. This requires more 'surveys and the development of better vaccines for poultry, "said Mr. Domenech.
The Government of Indonesia and the FAO, on behalf of the network OIE / FAO reference laboratories international working together to implement a monitoring programme of the virus to examine the problem more closely.
In Bangladesh, 21 of 64 districts have been infected with H5N1, and the situation seems worse. The disease appears to be endemic in the country, and the supervision and control campaigns have so far not succeeded in stopping the transmission of the virus between provinces. FAO is strengthening its presence in Bangladesh to help the government in its efforts to bring the disease under control.
Egypt has stepped up the fight against bird flu, but recent outbreaks indicate that control efforts should be strengthened, noted Domenech.
"The reporting new outbreaks in poultry, disinfecting, culling, movement control and biosecurity in farms and markets are still inadequate and must be improved. Vaccination campaigns have been generally successful in commercial farms, but not in the smallholder sector, "said Domenech.
After the first successful vaccination on industrial poultry farms, control measures may have slowed. The disease has had a chance to reappear in the industrial sector apparently resulting from a wider distribution throughout the country. Domenech also confirmed that the potential change of virus strains should be further investigated. FAO works closely with the Government of Egypt in enhancing all aspects of detection, control and communication.
In West Africa, Benin, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo have had homes in 2007. There is a grave risk that the virus is well established in the region, warned Mr. Domenech. "Virus circulating in Nigeria could be a potential source of infection for the neighbouring countries, despite intensive efforts by the Nigerian government to combat the disease in poultry," he said. FAO continues to work closely with governments in the region in improving the fight against the disease.
In Europe, Germany, Poland, Russia and the United Kingdom have reported new outbreaks of bird flu recently.
"The detection and immediate response in all countries, especially in the European Union, is highly effective," said Domenech. "But we are seeing viral infections in poultry which are not transmitted by wild birds. This raises questions on other means of transmission and the potential reservoirs of infection, such as free-range ducks" , he added.
With the assistance of FAO, more than 50 countries have been able to control and eliminate the disease in poultry.
"The supervision and control of immediate, biosecurity, vaccination and culling good and the strengthening of veterinary services is a key element for the success of the H5N1 avian influenza campaigns," said Mr. Domenech.
Friday, 22 February 2008
Virus remains a global threat - the fight against diseases greatly improved
Virus reste une menace mondiale - la lutte contre les maladies fortement améliorée
24 janvier 2008, Rome - Les récentes flambées d'influenza aviaire dans 15 pays démontrent que le virus H5N1 reste une menace mondiale et exige une surveillance étroite et de solides efforts de contrôle, selon la FAO.
Depuis décembre 2007, Bangladesh, Bénin, Chine, Egypte, Allemagne, Inde, Indonésie, Iran, Israël, Myanmar, Pologne, Russie, Ukraine, la Turquie et le Viet Nam ont confirmé de nouvelles flambées de H5N1 chez les volailles stocks. Sauf pour quelques cas chez des oiseaux sauvages en Chine, en Pologne et au Royaume-Uni, a confirmé la plupart des foyers se sont déclarés dans les volailles domestiques, notamment les poulets, dindes, oies et canards.
"Globalement, beaucoup de progrès ont été accomplis dans le maintien du virus H5N1 de la grippe aviaire sous contrôle. Nous sommes aujourd'hui mieux préparée pour faire face à la maladie que nous ne l'étions il ya trois ans ", a déclaré la FAO, vétérinaire en chef Joseph Domenech. "La surveillance, de détection précoce et de réaction immédiate se sont améliorées et de nombreux pays nouvellement infectés ont réussi à éliminer le virus de la volaille."
"Mais la crise de la grippe aviaire H5N1 est loin d'être terminée et demeure particulièrement préoccupante en Indonésie, au Bangladesh et en Égypte, où le virus s'est profondément enraciné malgré les grands efforts de contrôle", selon M. Domenech.
Les pays devraient continuer à suivre de près l'évolution de la situation. "Le virus n'est pas devenu plus contagieux pour les humains, mais a réussi à persister dans certaines régions d'Asie, d'Afrique et d'Europe. Il peut toujours déclencher une pandémie de grippe humaine ", a averti M. Domenech.
Commentant les différents pays, la FAO, vétérinaire en chef a déclaré que l'Inde se bat pour garder la plus grave jamais la flambée de grippe aviaire dans l'ouest du Bengale sous contrôle.
L'Indonésie demeure l'un des pays les plus touchés, avec 31 des 33 provinces contaminées depuis 2004, de nombreux lourdement. La poursuite du nombre de cas humains est préoccupante.
"Nous avons constaté que le virus H5N1 de nouvelles souches de virus de la grippe aviaire ont récemment vu le jour en Indonésie avec l'effet possible que les vaccins actuellement utilisés ne peuvent pas être pleinement protéger les volailles contre la maladie. Cela exige plus d'enquêtes et le développement de meilleurs vaccins contre la volaille ", a ajouté M. Domenech.
Le gouvernement de l'Indonésie et de la FAO, au nom du réseau de l'OIE / FAO de laboratoires de référence internationaux, travaillent de concert pour mettre en œuvre un programme de surveillance du virus d'examiner le problème de plus près.
Au Bangladesh, 21 des 64 districts ont été infectées par le H5N1, et la situation semble s'aggraver. La maladie semble être endémique dans le pays, et la surveillance et le contrôle des campagnes ont jusqu'à présent pas réussi à interrompre la transmission du virus entre les provinces. La FAO renforce sa présence au Bangladesh afin d'aider le gouvernement dans ses efforts pour amener la maladie sous contrôle.
L'Egypte a intensifié la lutte contre la grippe aviaire, mais les flambées récentes indiquent que les efforts de contrôle doivent être renforcées, a noté Domenech.
"La notification de nouvelles flambées dans les populations de volailles, la désinfection, abattage, le contrôle des mouvements et de biosécurité dans les fermes et les marchés demeurent insuffisants et doivent être améliorés. Des campagnes de vaccination ont été généralement réussie dans les fermes commerciales, mais pas chez les petits producteurs ", selon M. Domenech.
Après le premier succès de la vaccination sur les exploitations avicoles industrielles, les mesures de contrôle peuvent avoir ralenti. La maladie a donc eu l'occasion de réapparaître dans le secteur industriel résultant apparemment d'une redistribution plus large dans tout le pays. Domenech a également confirmé que le changement potentiel de souches de virus devrait être étudiée davantage. La FAO collabore étroitement avec le gouvernement de l'Egypte dans le renforcement de tous les aspects de dépistage, de contrôle et de la communication.
En Afrique de l'Ouest, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Nigéria et du Togo ont eu des foyers en 2007. Il existe un risque grave que le virus est bien implanté dans la région, a averti M. Domenech. "Virus circulation au Nigéria pourrait être une source potentielle d'infection pour les pays voisins, malgré les efforts intenses du gouvernement nigérian pour lutter contre la maladie chez les volailles", at-il dit. La FAO continue à collaborer étroitement avec les gouvernements de la région dans l'amélioration de la lutte contre la maladie.
En Europe, l'Allemagne, la Pologne, la Fédération de Russie et le Royaume-Uni ont fait état de nouvelles flambées de grippe aviaire récemment.
"La détection et la réaction immédiate dans tous les pays, en particulier dans l'Union européenne, est très efficace", selon M. Domenech. "Mais nous assistons à des infections virales chez les volailles qui ne sont pas transmis par les oiseaux sauvages. Cela soulève des questions sur d'autres moyens de transmission du virus et le potentiel des réservoirs d'infection, comme les canards en libre parcours », at-il ajouté.
Avec l'assistance de la FAO, plus de 50 pays ont été en mesure de contrôler et d'éliminer la maladie chez les volailles.
"La surveillance et le contrôle des interventions immédiates, de biosécurité, de vaccination et d'abattage en bonne et le renforcement des services vétérinaires sont des éléments clés pour la réussite de la grippe aviaire H5N1 campagnes de lutte", a ajouté M. Domenech.
2008年1月24日，罗马-最近禽流感疫情在全球1 5个国家表明， H 5N1病毒仍然是一个全球性的威胁，需要密切监测和强有力的控制工作，粮农组织今天说。
自2007 年12月，孟加拉国，贝宁，中国，埃及，德国，印度，印度尼西亚，伊朗，以色列，缅甸，波兰，俄罗斯，乌克兰，土耳其和越南已确认新的H5N1禽类中的暴 发股票。除极少数情况下，在野生鸟类在中国，波兰和美国，英国，大多数的证实爆发发生在国内家禽，包括鸡，火鸡，鹅，鸭。
"在全球范围内，已取得很大进展，在保持了H5N1禽流感病毒已受到控制。我们更充足的准备，今天，以处理这种疾病相比，我们在三年前，说： "粮农组织首席兽医官约瑟夫多梅内奇。 "监测，早期探测和即时的反应，已经改善，而且很多新近感染的国家管理，以消灭病毒从家禽" 。
" ，但H5N1型禽流感危机远没有结束，并且仍然特别令人忧虑的，在印尼，孟加拉和埃及之后，这种病毒已经成为根深蒂固，虽然做出了重大的努力， "多梅内克说。
各国应继续密切注视局势的演变。 "这种病毒并没有变得更传染给人类，但仍能坚持在亚洲部分地区，非洲和欧洲可能。它仍然可以引发人类流感大流行， "多梅内克警告说。
以 下初步成功的疫苗接种对工业家禽饲养场，控制措施，可能已有所放缓。这种疾病，从而获得机会重现，在工业部门中似乎造成了广泛的重新分配到全国各地。多梅 内克亦证实该电位变化的病毒株，应作进一步调查。粮农组织正与政府紧密合作，对埃及在加强各方面的疾病检测，控制和通信。
在西部非 洲，贝宁，加纳，尼日利亚和多哥已爆发于2007年。是一个严重的危险，这种病毒变得早已确立在该地区，多梅内克警告说。 "病毒环流尼日利亚可能是一个潜在的传染源邻近国家，尽管紧张的努力，由尼日利亚政府为控制家禽疾病的， "他说。粮农组织继续紧密合作，本地区各国政府在改进疾病控制。
"探测和即时的反应，在所有国家，尤其是欧洲联盟，是十分有效的， "多梅内克说。 "但我们看到病毒感染的家禽是不会传染的野生鸟类。这就提出了问题，其他途径的病毒的传播和潜在水库的感染，像在免费范围鸭子， "他补充说。
Wednesday, 13 February 2008
Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not infect humans, rare cases of human infection with an avian influenza viruses have been reported since 1996. Since November 2003, more than 330 confirmed cases of human infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus were reported in 14 countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) maintains situation updates and cumulative reports of human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1). Most human cases of H5N1 infection have occurred during direct contact with sick or dead infected poultry. Another subtype of avian influenza had infected humans, including low pathogenic and highly pathogenic strains. (For more information, see "low pathogenic against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses" on the CDC Influenza Virus Web page.) Most human infections with other avian influenza virus A have also been attributed to direct contact poultry. Human clinical disease from infection with avian influenza A virus ranged from eye infections (conjunctivitis) or severe respiratory disease (pneumonia) death.
Because of concerns about the possibility of widespread infection in the human population, public health authorities closely monitor outbreaks of human illness associated with avian influenza. The spread of avian influenza A virus from a sick person to another has been reported very rarely, and it was limited, sporadic and ineffective. But because the avian influenza A viruses have the potential to change and gain the ability to spread easily between people, monitoring of human infection and person-to-person transmission is important. (See information on influenza pandemics for more information.)
Cases of avian influenza human infections
Confirmed cases of avian influenza A virus infections in humans since 1996 include:
* H7N7, the United Kingdom, 1996: An adult conjunctivitis after a piece of straw eye contact with her while cleaning a duck house. Low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H7N7) virus was isolated from a specimen of the conjunctiva. The person was not hospitalized and recovered.
* H5N1, in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, 1997: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) occurred in the two infections in poultry and humans. It was the first time that an avian influenza virus A transmission of the virus directly from birds to humans was the cause of respiratory ailments. During this outbreak, 18 people were hospitalized and six of them died. To control the outbreak, authorities killed about 1.5 million chickens to remove the source of the virus. The most important risk factor for H5N1 infection of the man was visiting a live poultry market in the week prior to the onset of disease.
* H9N2, China and Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, 1999: Low pathogenic avian influenza A (H9N2) virus infection was confirmed in two hospitalized children and resulted in few signs of influenza-like illness. Both patients recovered, and no additional cases were confirmed. The source is unknown. Several other human infections of the H9N2 virus were reported from China in 1998-99.
* H7N2, Virginia, 2002: Following an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N2) among poultry in the Shenandoah Valley area of poultry production, a person developed a simple flu symptoms and had serological evidence of infection by the H7N2 virus.
* H5N1, China and Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, 2003: Two cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection occurred among members of a Hong Kong family that had traveled to China. One person recovered, the other died. How and where these two family members were infected was not determined. Another family member died of a respiratory illness in China, but no testing was done.
* H7N7, Netherlands, 2003: The Netherlands reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N7) virus among poultry on multiple farms. A total of 89 people were confirmed to have H7N7 virus infections associated with outbreaks in poultry. Most human cases have occurred among poultry. H7N7 of the disease has been associated generally mild and included 78 cases of conjunctivitis (eye infection), five cases of conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness with fever, cough and muscle aches; two cases of influenza-like illness, and four cases that were classified under "other". One death occurred in a veterinarian who visited one of the affected farms and developed complications of H7N7 infection, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. The majority of H7N7 cases occurred through direct contact with infected poultry. However, the Dutch authorities reported three possible cases of human-to-human H7N7 virus from poultry workers to family members.
* H9N2, in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, 2003: Low pathogenic avian influenza A (H9N2) virus infection was confirmed in a child in Hong Kong. The child was hospitalized with a flu-like illness and recovered.
* H7N2, New York, 2003: In November 2003, a patient with serious underlying medical was admitted to a hospital in New York with respiratory symptoms. The patient recovered and returned home after a few weeks. Testing revealed that the patient was infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N2) virus.
* H7N3, Canada, 2004: In March 2004, two poultry workers who helped in culling operations during much influenza A (H7N3) avian outbreak confirmed culture-conjunctivitis, one of whom was also coryza . The two poultry workers recovered. A worker has been infected with the H7N3 low pathogenic and with the highly pathogenic H7N3.
* H5N1, Thailand and Vietnam, 2004: In late 2003 and early 2004, severe and fatal human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) have been associated with widespread virus outbreaks poultry. Most cases of pneumonia and had a lot of respiratory failure. Some additional cases of human H5N1 infection have been reported during the mid-2004 and late 2004. Most cases appear to be associated with direct contact with sick or dead poultry. An example of probable limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus is suspected to have taken place in Thailand. A total of 50 cases of human H5N1 infection, with 36 deaths have been reported in three countries.
* H5N1, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam, 2005: Serious and fatal human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) have been associated with the virus current H5N1 outbreak in poultry in the region. A total of 98 cases of human H5N1 infection, with 43 deaths were reported from five countries.
* H5N1, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Djibouti, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Thailand, Turkey, 2006: serious and fatal human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses are produced in association with the disease and the enlargement process. While most of these cases occurred as a result of contact with infected poultry, Azerbaijan, the most plausible cause of exposure to the H5N1 virus in several cases of human infection is thought to be infected through contact with wild birds dead (swans). The largest family cluster of H5N1 cases have occurred so far in the north of Sumatra, Indonesia in May 2006, with seven cases confirmed H5N1 and a probable case of H5N1, including seven deaths. Overall, 115 cases of human H5N1 infection with 79 deaths have been reported in nine countries.
* H5N1, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Vietnam, 2007: serious and fatal human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have occurred in association with outbreaks poultry. In addition, during 2007, Nigeria (January), Laos (February), Myanmar (December), and Pakistan (2007) have confirmed their first human infections with the H5N1 virus.
* H7N2, the United Kingdom, 2007: human infection with low pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N2) virus causing flu-like illness and conjunctivitis have been identified in four cases hospitalized. These cases have been associated with avian H7N2 outbreak in Wales.
* H9N2, China, 2007: In March 2007, in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, confirmed low pathogenic avian influenza A (H9N2) infection by the virus 9-month-old daughter slight signs of the disease .
The World Health Organization (WHO), the site offers a chronology of the main avian influenza A (H5N1).
Symptoms of bird flu in humans
The reported symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from eye infections (conjunctivitis) of influenza-like illness symptoms (eg fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to the severe respiratory illness (eg, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress , viral pneumonia) sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting and neurological.
Antiviral Agents for avian influenza A virus infections in humans
The CDC and WHO recommend oseltamivir, an antiviral drug prescription, treatment and chemoprophylaxis of human infection with an avian influenza virus. Analyses of H5N1 virus circulating available worldwide suggest that most viruses are susceptible to oseltamivir. However, some evidence of oseltamivir resistance were reported in the H5N1 virus isolated in some cases of human H5N1 infection. Ongoing monitoring of antiviral resistance among avian influenza virus A is critical.
Prevention of avian influenza A virus infections in humans
People exposed to avian influenza A-infected infected poultry or potentially is advisable to follow the good practice of infection control, including special attention to hand hygiene, and use personal protective equipment . In addition, they must be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and the flu should take antiviral drugs as a prophylactic. People exposed should be closely monitored for symptoms that develop during the week and after exposure to infected poultry or potentially to avian flu-contaminated environments.
How bird flu is detected in humans?
Bird flu can not be diagnosed by symptoms alone, so a laboratory test is required. Avian influenza is usually diagnosed by collecting a swab from the nose or throat during the first few days of illness. The swab is then sent to a laboratory, where they will seek to be the avian flu virus by using a molecular test, or they will try to grow the virus. Growing avian flu virus should only be done in laboratories with high levels of protection. If it is late in the disease, it may be difficult to find an avian influenza virus directly using these methods. If so, it may still be possible to diagnose avian influenza by looking for evidence of the body's response to the virus. This is not always an option because it requires two blood samples (one taken during the first few days of illness and another taken some weeks later), and it can take several weeks to verify the results.
What are the implications of avian influenza to human health?
Two main risks to human health from bird flu are: 1) the risk of direct infection when the virus passes from birds to humans, sometimes resulting in severe disease, and 2) the risk that the virus -- if given enough opportunities - will change In a highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from one person to another.
How is avian influenza in humans treated?
Studies conducted in the laboratory suggest that the prescription medicines approved for human influenza viruses should work in the treatment of avian flu virus in humans. However, influenza viruses can become resistant to these drugs, so these medications may not always work. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these drugs.
Does the seasonal influenza vaccine protects against bird flu in populations?
No seasonal flu vaccine does not protect against bird flu.
Should I wear a surgical mask to prevent exposure to avian influenza?
Currently, wearing a mask is not recommended for routine use (eg, in public) for the prevention of influenza exposure. In the United States, surgical masks available and the procedure has been widely used in health-care settings to prevent exposure to respiratory infections, but the masks have not been used commonly in community settings, such as schools , businesses and public gatherings.
Can I get avian influenza eating or preparing poultry or eggs?
You can not get avian influenza are treated properly and poultry and eggs cooked.
There is currently no scientific evidence that people have been infected with bird flu by eating safely handled and properly cooked poultry and eggs.
Most cases of avian influenza in humans have resulted from direct or close contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces by secretions and excretions from infected birds. Although poultry and eggs were to be contaminated by the virus, cooking would kill. In fact, recent studies have shown that the cooking methods that are already recommended by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for poultry and eggs to prevent further infections virus Flu will destroy as well.
So, to stay safe, the board is the same to protect against any infection of poultry:
* Wash your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds before and after handling raw poultry and eggs.
* Clean cutting boards and other utensils with soap and hot water to keep raw poultry from contaminating other foods.
* Use a food thermometer to make sure you are cooking at a temperature of at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit Consumers may wish to cooking at a higher temperature for personal preference.
* Cook eggs until the whites and yolks are firm.
The American government has carefully internal controls and imported food products, and in 2004 issued a ban on imports of poultry from countries affected by avian influenza viruses, including the H5N1 strain. This ban is still in place. For more information, see the embargo Bird Specified Countries.
We have a small flock of chickens. Is it safe to keep them?
Yes. In the United States, there is no need to remove it at the moment, a flock of chickens because of concerns about bird flu. The Department of Agriculture of the United States is monitoring the potential infection of poultry and poultry products by avian influenza viruses and other infectious agents.
For additional information on avian influenza visit pandemicflu.gov.
Avian influenza A (H5N1)
What is the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus that has been reported in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East?
Influenza A (H5N1) virus - also called "H5N1 virus" - is a subtype of influenza A virus that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds and can be fatal for them.
Outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza occurred among poultry in eight countries in Asia (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam) in late 2003 and early 2004. At that time, more than 100 million poultry in the affected countries either died from the disease or were killed in an attempt to control the outbreaks. In March 2004, the outbreak was reported as being under control.
Starting in June 2004, however, new outbreaks of H5N1 among poultry and wild birds have been reported in Asia. Since then, the virus has spread geographically. Reports of H5N1 infection in wild birds in Europe began in mid-2005. In early 2006, infection with influenza A H5N1 in wild birds and poultry were reported in Africa and the Middle East.
Human cases of influenza A (H5N1) were reported in Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Djibouti, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam. For the latest information on avian influenza and cumulative number of cases, see the World Health Organization Avian Influenza site.
What are the risks to humans from the current outbreak of H5N1?
H5N1 virus does not infect humans in general, but more than 200 human cases have been reported. Most of these cases have occurred from direct or close contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces, but a few cases of human-to-human spread of H5N1 have occurred.
So far, the spread of H5N1 virus from person to person has been rare, limited and sporadic. However, because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could one day be able to infect humans and spread easily from one person to another. Because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human population.
If the H5N1 virus were to acquire the ability to spread easily from person to person, an influenza pandemic (worldwide outbreak of disease) could begin. No one can predict when a pandemic might occur. However, experts from around the world are watching the H5N1 situation in Asia and Europe very closely and are preparing for the possibility that the virus may begin to spread more easily from person to person.
How is infection with the H5N1 virus in humans treated?
Most H5N1 viruses that have caused human illness and death seem to be resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two antiviral drugs commonly used for treatment of patients with influenza. Two other antiviral drugs, oseltamivir and zanamivir, would probably work to treat flu caused by H5N1, but further studies are needed to demonstrate their current and future effectiveness.
Is there a vaccine to protect people against some strains of the H5N1 virus?
Yes. On April 17, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced its approval of the first vaccine to prevent human infection with a strain of avian influenza (bird flu) H5N1 virus. The vaccine, produced by sanofi pasteur, Inc., was purchased by the federal government for the US Strategic National Stockpile will be distributed by public health officials in case of need. The vaccine will not be marketed to the general public. Other H5N1 vaccine are being developed by other companies against different H5N1 strains. For more information about the sanofi pasteur, Inc. vaccine, visit http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2007/NEW01611.html. For information on other H5N1 virus of pandemic vaccine and research http://www.pandemicflu.gov/research/index.html # vresearch visit.
What is the advantage of the FDA approved the H5N1 vaccine produced by Sanofi Pasteur Inc?
The H5N1 vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on April 17, 2007, was designed as a safeguard against the possible emergence of a pandemic virus H5N1. However, given that the H5N1 virus is not a pandemic virus, as it is not transmitted efficiently between humans, the H5N1 vaccine is currently being held in stockpiles rather than being used by the general public. This H5N1 vaccine aids preparedness efforts in the event that a pandemic of H5N1 virus were to emerge.
What is the CDC recommend regarding the H5N1 virus?
In February 2004, the CDC has provided public health departments of the United States with recommendations for enhanced surveillance ( "detection") of the H5N1 influenza in the country. Tracking messages broadcast via the health alert has been sent to the ministries of health on August 12, 2004, February 4, 2005 and June 7, 2006, three notices reminded all public health services on the recommendations for detecting (domestic surveillance), the diagnosis and prevention of the spread of the H5N1 virus. Opinions have also recommended measures for laboratory testing for H5N1. To read these opinions, see updates of Health on avian influenza.
Does CDC recommend travel restrictions to areas with known outbreaks of H5N1?
CDC does not recommend any travel restrictions to affected countries at this time. However, the CDC currently advises that travelers to countries with known outbreaks of H5N1 influenza avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live food markets and any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from poultry or other animals. For more information, visit travel health.
Is there a risk in handling products that come from feathers from countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1)?
The United States government has determined that there is a risk to handling feather products from countries experiencing outbreaks of H5N1 influenza.
There is currently a ban on the importation of birds and bird products from countries affected by H5N1 in Africa, Asia and Europe. The regulation states that no person may import or attempt to import any birds (Class Aves), whether dead or alive, or any products derived from birds (including hatching eggs), from country ( see the embargo Bird Specified Countries). This prohibition shall not apply to any person who imports or attempts to import products derived from birds if, as determined by federal officials, such products have been properly processed to render them not so they do not pose no risk of transmitting or carrying H5Nl and which comply with the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Therefore, feathers from these countries are banned unless they have been processed to render them not. Additional information about the import ban is available on the website of the USDA.
Is there a risk to the import of pet birds that come from countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1)?
The United States government has determined that there is a risk to the import of pet birds from countries experiencing outbreaks of H5N1 influenza. CDC and USDA have both taken steps to ban the importation of birds from areas where the H5N1 virus has been documented. There is currently a ban on the importation of birds and bird products from countries affected by H5N1 in Africa, Asia and Europe. The regulation states that no person may import or attempt to import any birds (Class Aves), whether dead or alive, or any products derived from birds (including hatching eggs), from country ( see the embargo Bird Specified Countries).
Can a person be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus cleaning bird feeder?
There is no evidence of the H5N1 virus that caused the disease in birds or people in the United States. At present, there is no risk of infection with the H5N1 virus in bird feeders. Generally, perching birds (Passeriformes) are the predominate type of birds at feeders. While there are documented cases of H5N1 causing death in some Passeriformes (eg, house sparrow, Eurasian tree-sparrow, house finch), both free and experimental parameters ranging none in the United States and most of wild birds that are traditionally Associates in the avian flu virus waterfowl and shorebirds are birds.
Influenza pandemic preparedness
What changes are needed for H5N1 or another avian influenza virus to cause a pandemic?
Three conditions must be met for a pandemic to start: 1) a new subtype of influenza virus must emerge for which there is little or no immunity in humans, 2) it must infect humans and causes illness, and 3) it must spread easily and sustainably (Continue uninterrupted) in humans. The H5N1 virus in Asia and Europe meets the first two conditions: it is a new virus for humans (H5N1 viruses have never circulated widely among people), and it has infected more than 190 humans , killing more than half of them.
However, the third condition, the establishment of efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus, has not occurred. For this to happen, the H5N1 virus would need to improve its transmissibility among humans. This could occur either by reassortment or adaptive mutation.
Reassortment occurs when the genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection (infection with both viruses at the same time) of a human or other mammal. The result could be a fully transmissible pandemic virus, ie, a virus that can spread easily and directly between humans. A more gradual process of adaptive mutation, where the capability of a virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans.
What is the CDC doing to prepare for a possible pandemic of H5N1?
CDC is taking part in a number of pandemic prevention and preparedness activities, including:
* Provide leadership to the National Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Task Force, created in May 2005 by the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
* In collaboration with the Association of Public Health Laboratories on the status of training workshops for laboratories on the use of special laboratory (molecular) to identify H5.
* In collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and others to help States in their efforts to pandemic planning.
* Work with other agencies, such as the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration on antiviral stockpile.
* In collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to investigate influenza H5N1 among people (eg, in Vietnam) and to provide support for laboratory diagnostic work and training for local authorities .
* Execution of laboratory testing of H5N1 viruses.
* The launch of an initiative by $ 5.5 million to improve influenza surveillance in Asia.
* Holding or taking part in training sessions to improve local capacities to conduct surveillance of possible human cases of H5N1 and to detect influenza A virus subtype H5 using laboratory techniques.
* The development and distribution of reagents kits to detect the currently circulating influenza A H5N1 virus.
* CDC has developed and distributed the first test approved by FDA for the detection of H5 virus that first emerged in Asia in 2003.
CDC is working closely with WHO and the National Institutes of Health on safety testing of candidate vaccines and the development of new vaccine candidates for seed influenza A virus (H5N1) and other subtypes of influenza viruses A.
Virus of bird flu in animals
What animals can be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus?
In addition to humans and birds, we know that pigs, tigers, leopards, ferrets and domestic cats can be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. In addition, in early March 2006, Germany reported H5N1 infection in a stone marten (a weasel-like mammals). Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus that emerged in Asia in 2003 is evolving and it is possible that other mammals may be susceptible to infection as well. CDC is working closely with national and international partners to continually monitor the situation and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
Maybe domestic cats infected with avian influenza viruses?
Although domestic cats are generally not susceptible to infection with influenza type A, it is known that they can become infected and die (both experimentally and naturally) of the avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses , in a research lab / alignment may transmit the virus to other cats. It is not known whether domestic cats can transmit the virus to other domestic cats under natural conditions.
How cats are infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus?
All cases of influenza A (H5N1) in domestic cats reported to date have been associated with H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild birds or allegedly occurred by the cat ate raw infected birds.
How commonly cats were infected by avian influenza A (H5N1) virus?
During the avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreak that occurred from 2003 to 2004 in Asia, there were only several unofficial reports of fatal infections in domestic cats. Studies conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2004 showed that housecats could be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) and the virus could spread to other housecats. In these experiments, the cats became ill after direct inoculation of virus isolated from a fatal human case, and following the feeding of infected raw chicken. In February 2006, Germany reported that a domestic cat had died from influenza A (H5N1). Chat living in the north of the island of Ruegen, where more than 100 wild birds died of the disease. The cat probably got sick by eating an infected bird.
What about infection in large cats, like tigers?
The big cats in captivity have been diagnosed with bird flu as well. In December 2003, two tigers and two leopards that were fed fresh chicken carcasses from a local slaughterhouse died at a zoo in Thailand. An investigation revealed avian influenza A (H5N1) in tissue samples. In February and March 2004, the virus has been detected in a clouded leopard and white tiger, respectively, who died in a zoo near Bangkok. In October 2004, 147 of 441 captive tigers at a zoo in Thailand died or were euthanatized as a result of infection after being fed fresh chicken carcasses. Cats are considered to have been ill from eating raw meat infected. Results of a subsequent investigation suggested that at least some tiger-tiger transmission occurred in this establishment.
Can cats spread H5N1 to people?
There is no evidence to date that cats can spread the H5N1 virus to humans. No cases of avian influenza in humans have been linked to exposure to sick cats, and no outbreaks among populations of cats have been reported. All of the A (H5N1) virus infection in cats reported to date appear to have been associated with outbreaks in domestic or wild birds and acquired through ingestion of raw meat from an infected bird.
What is the risk to humans or other species of cats infected with the H5N1 virus of bird flu?
There is no evidence to date that cats can spread the H5N1 virus to humans. No cases of avian influenza in humans have been linked to exposure to sick cats, and no outbreaks among populations of cats have been reported. All of the A (H5N1) virus infection in cats reported to date appear to have been associated with outbreaks in domestic or wild birds and acquired through ingestion of raw meat infected.
What is the risk that a cat in the United States are infected with the A (H5N1) virus?
As long as there is no influenza A (H5N1) in the United States, there is no risk of a cat US are infected with the disease. The virus circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa has not yet entered the United States. CDC is working closely with national and international partners to continually monitor the situation and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
If avian influenza A (H5N1) is identified in the United States, how can I protect my cat?
As long as there is no H5N1 influenza in the United States, at this time there is no danger of a US cat becoming infected with the disease. In Europe, however, where the H5N1 virus has been reported in wild birds, poultry, several cats, and a stone marten (a member of the weasel family), the European Centre for Prevention and Disease Control has issued preliminary recommendations for owners of cats living in the affected areas H5N1. In addition, the Food and Agriculture has developed guidelines for areas where the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus has been diagnosed or is suspected in poultry or wild birds.
Where can I find more information on the avian influenza virus in cats?
For more information on avian influenza in cats, see Avian influenza - Frequently Asked Questions (from the American Veterinary Medical Association) and H5N1 in Cats (from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).
Maybe dogs infected with avian flu?
While dogs are not usually susceptible to avian influenza virus, avian influenza A (H5N1) virus that emerged in Asia in 2003 has been documented to infect other carnivorous species (for example, cats, tigers, leopards and stone martens). This has raised concern that this strain of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus may be capable of infecting dogs. An unpublished study conducted in 2005 by the National Institute of Animal Health in Bangkok indicated that the dogs could be infected with the virus, but no associated disease was detected. This limited information is not enough to determine definitively whether dogs are susceptible to the virus. CDC is coordinating with the USDA, veterinary associations, and other partners nationally and internationally on this issue and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
How dogs are infected by avian influenza A (H5N1)?
There is not enough information available about avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in dogs to know how the infection occurs. Affected domestic cats in Europe appear to have become infected by feeding on infected poultry or raw wild birds. If dogs are susceptible to avian influenza A (H5N1), infection may be by the same route.
What is the current risk that a dog in the United States are infected with avian influenza A (H5N1)?
As long as there is no influenza A (H5N1) in the United States, there is no risk of a dog US are infected with the disease. The virus circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa has not yet entered the United States. CDC is working closely with national and international partners to continually monitor the situation and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
Influenza is a serious disease. Each year in the United States, on average:
* 5% to 20% of the population gets the flu;
* More than 200000 people are hospitalized from flu complications, and;
* About 36,000 people die from influenza.
Take steps to protect yourself and your loved ones from the flu.
1. Vaccinate: Take time to get a vaccine.
* A flu vaccine is the best way to protect against the flu.
* The influenza vaccine protects against three different influenza viruses.
* Getting a vaccine is very important for people at high risk of serious complications from
influenza and their close contacts. People at high risk include infants, pregnant women,
people with chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or heart disease, and people aged 65
* This year, a level of the supply of vaccine is available, more people than ever before can
seek protection from the flu.
* Because the flu season can last as late as May, getting a flu vaccine now can still be useful.
2. Stop Germs: Take daily preventive actions.
* Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, discard the tissue
away after you use it.
* Wash your hands frequently with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. If
you are not near water, use alcohol to clean hands.
* Avoid as much as possible from people who are sick.
* If you have the flu, stay home from work or school. If you are sick, do not go near other
people so as not to make you sick.
* Try not to touch your eyes, nose or mouth. Propagation of germs often in this way.
3. Antivirals: take antiviral drugs your doctor if you need it.
* There are flu antiviral drugs that can treat influenza or to prevent infection with influenza
* For treatment, antiviral drugs must be started within 48 hours of falling ill.
* In the area of prevention, anti-viral drugs are 70% to 90% effective in preventing infection.
* These drugs must be prescribed by a health care provider.
* If you develop flu-like symptoms (usually high fever, headache, extreme fatigue, dry
cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose and muscle aches), or are exposed to the flu
before 'get a flu vaccine, your health-care professional Décidera if you have to make