How bird flu is detected in humans?
Bird flu can not be diagnosed by symptoms alone, so a laboratory test is required. Avian influenza is usually diagnosed by collecting a swab from the nose or throat during the first few days of illness. The swab is then sent to a laboratory, where they will seek to be the avian flu virus by using a molecular test, or they will try to grow the virus. Growing avian flu virus should only be done in laboratories with high levels of protection. If it is late in the disease, it may be difficult to find an avian influenza virus directly using these methods. If so, it may still be possible to diagnose avian influenza by looking for evidence of the body's response to the virus. This is not always an option because it requires two blood samples (one taken during the first few days of illness and another taken some weeks later), and it can take several weeks to verify the results.
What are the implications of avian influenza to human health?
Two main risks to human health from bird flu are: 1) the risk of direct infection when the virus passes from birds to humans, sometimes resulting in severe disease, and 2) the risk that the virus -- if given enough opportunities - will change In a highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from one person to another.
How is avian influenza in humans treated?
Studies conducted in the laboratory suggest that the prescription medicines approved for human influenza viruses should work in the treatment of avian flu virus in humans. However, influenza viruses can become resistant to these drugs, so these medications may not always work. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these drugs.
Does the seasonal influenza vaccine protects against bird flu in populations?
No seasonal flu vaccine does not protect against bird flu.
Should I wear a surgical mask to prevent exposure to avian influenza?
Currently, wearing a mask is not recommended for routine use (eg, in public) for the prevention of influenza exposure. In the United States, surgical masks available and the procedure has been widely used in health-care settings to prevent exposure to respiratory infections, but the masks have not been used commonly in community settings, such as schools , businesses and public gatherings.
Can I get avian influenza eating or preparing poultry or eggs?
You can not get avian influenza are treated properly and poultry and eggs cooked.
There is currently no scientific evidence that people have been infected with bird flu by eating safely handled and properly cooked poultry and eggs.
Most cases of avian influenza in humans have resulted from direct or close contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces by secretions and excretions from infected birds. Although poultry and eggs were to be contaminated by the virus, cooking would kill. In fact, recent studies have shown that the cooking methods that are already recommended by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for poultry and eggs to prevent further infections virus Flu will destroy as well.
So, to stay safe, the board is the same to protect against any infection of poultry:
* Wash your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds before and after handling raw poultry and eggs.
* Clean cutting boards and other utensils with soap and hot water to keep raw poultry from contaminating other foods.
* Use a food thermometer to make sure you are cooking at a temperature of at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit Consumers may wish to cooking at a higher temperature for personal preference.
* Cook eggs until the whites and yolks are firm.
The American government has carefully internal controls and imported food products, and in 2004 issued a ban on imports of poultry from countries affected by avian influenza viruses, including the H5N1 strain. This ban is still in place. For more information, see the embargo Bird Specified Countries.
We have a small flock of chickens. Is it safe to keep them?
Yes. In the United States, there is no need to remove it at the moment, a flock of chickens because of concerns about bird flu. The Department of Agriculture of the United States is monitoring the potential infection of poultry and poultry products by avian influenza viruses and other infectious agents.
For additional information on avian influenza visit pandemicflu.gov.
Avian influenza A (H5N1)
What is the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus that has been reported in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East?
Influenza A (H5N1) virus - also called "H5N1 virus" - is a subtype of influenza A virus that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds and can be fatal for them.
Outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza occurred among poultry in eight countries in Asia (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam) in late 2003 and early 2004. At that time, more than 100 million poultry in the affected countries either died from the disease or were killed in an attempt to control the outbreaks. In March 2004, the outbreak was reported as being under control.
Starting in June 2004, however, new outbreaks of H5N1 among poultry and wild birds have been reported in Asia. Since then, the virus has spread geographically. Reports of H5N1 infection in wild birds in Europe began in mid-2005. In early 2006, infection with influenza A H5N1 in wild birds and poultry were reported in Africa and the Middle East.
Human cases of influenza A (H5N1) were reported in Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Djibouti, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam. For the latest information on avian influenza and cumulative number of cases, see the World Health Organization Avian Influenza site.
What are the risks to humans from the current outbreak of H5N1?
H5N1 virus does not infect humans in general, but more than 200 human cases have been reported. Most of these cases have occurred from direct or close contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces, but a few cases of human-to-human spread of H5N1 have occurred.
So far, the spread of H5N1 virus from person to person has been rare, limited and sporadic. However, because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could one day be able to infect humans and spread easily from one person to another. Because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human population.
If the H5N1 virus were to acquire the ability to spread easily from person to person, an influenza pandemic (worldwide outbreak of disease) could begin. No one can predict when a pandemic might occur. However, experts from around the world are watching the H5N1 situation in Asia and Europe very closely and are preparing for the possibility that the virus may begin to spread more easily from person to person.
How is infection with the H5N1 virus in humans treated?
Most H5N1 viruses that have caused human illness and death seem to be resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two antiviral drugs commonly used for treatment of patients with influenza. Two other antiviral drugs, oseltamivir and zanamivir, would probably work to treat flu caused by H5N1, but further studies are needed to demonstrate their current and future effectiveness.
Is there a vaccine to protect people against some strains of the H5N1 virus?
Yes. On April 17, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced its approval of the first vaccine to prevent human infection with a strain of avian influenza (bird flu) H5N1 virus. The vaccine, produced by sanofi pasteur, Inc., was purchased by the federal government for the US Strategic National Stockpile will be distributed by public health officials in case of need. The vaccine will not be marketed to the general public. Other H5N1 vaccine are being developed by other companies against different H5N1 strains. For more information about the sanofi pasteur, Inc. vaccine, visit http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2007/NEW01611.html. For information on other H5N1 virus of pandemic vaccine and research http://www.pandemicflu.gov/research/index.html # vresearch visit.
What is the advantage of the FDA approved the H5N1 vaccine produced by Sanofi Pasteur Inc?
The H5N1 vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on April 17, 2007, was designed as a safeguard against the possible emergence of a pandemic virus H5N1. However, given that the H5N1 virus is not a pandemic virus, as it is not transmitted efficiently between humans, the H5N1 vaccine is currently being held in stockpiles rather than being used by the general public. This H5N1 vaccine aids preparedness efforts in the event that a pandemic of H5N1 virus were to emerge.
What is the CDC recommend regarding the H5N1 virus?
In February 2004, the CDC has provided public health departments of the United States with recommendations for enhanced surveillance ( "detection") of the H5N1 influenza in the country. Tracking messages broadcast via the health alert has been sent to the ministries of health on August 12, 2004, February 4, 2005 and June 7, 2006, three notices reminded all public health services on the recommendations for detecting (domestic surveillance), the diagnosis and prevention of the spread of the H5N1 virus. Opinions have also recommended measures for laboratory testing for H5N1. To read these opinions, see updates of Health on avian influenza.
Does CDC recommend travel restrictions to areas with known outbreaks of H5N1?
CDC does not recommend any travel restrictions to affected countries at this time. However, the CDC currently advises that travelers to countries with known outbreaks of H5N1 influenza avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live food markets and any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from poultry or other animals. For more information, visit travel health.
Is there a risk in handling products that come from feathers from countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1)?
The United States government has determined that there is a risk to handling feather products from countries experiencing outbreaks of H5N1 influenza.
There is currently a ban on the importation of birds and bird products from countries affected by H5N1 in Africa, Asia and Europe. The regulation states that no person may import or attempt to import any birds (Class Aves), whether dead or alive, or any products derived from birds (including hatching eggs), from country ( see the embargo Bird Specified Countries). This prohibition shall not apply to any person who imports or attempts to import products derived from birds if, as determined by federal officials, such products have been properly processed to render them not so they do not pose no risk of transmitting or carrying H5Nl and which comply with the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Therefore, feathers from these countries are banned unless they have been processed to render them not. Additional information about the import ban is available on the website of the USDA.
Is there a risk to the import of pet birds that come from countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1)?
The United States government has determined that there is a risk to the import of pet birds from countries experiencing outbreaks of H5N1 influenza. CDC and USDA have both taken steps to ban the importation of birds from areas where the H5N1 virus has been documented. There is currently a ban on the importation of birds and bird products from countries affected by H5N1 in Africa, Asia and Europe. The regulation states that no person may import or attempt to import any birds (Class Aves), whether dead or alive, or any products derived from birds (including hatching eggs), from country ( see the embargo Bird Specified Countries).
Can a person be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus cleaning bird feeder?
There is no evidence of the H5N1 virus that caused the disease in birds or people in the United States. At present, there is no risk of infection with the H5N1 virus in bird feeders. Generally, perching birds (Passeriformes) are the predominate type of birds at feeders. While there are documented cases of H5N1 causing death in some Passeriformes (eg, house sparrow, Eurasian tree-sparrow, house finch), both free and experimental parameters ranging none in the United States and most of wild birds that are traditionally Associates in the avian flu virus waterfowl and shorebirds are birds.
Influenza pandemic preparedness
What changes are needed for H5N1 or another avian influenza virus to cause a pandemic?
Three conditions must be met for a pandemic to start: 1) a new subtype of influenza virus must emerge for which there is little or no immunity in humans, 2) it must infect humans and causes illness, and 3) it must spread easily and sustainably (Continue uninterrupted) in humans. The H5N1 virus in Asia and Europe meets the first two conditions: it is a new virus for humans (H5N1 viruses have never circulated widely among people), and it has infected more than 190 humans , killing more than half of them.
However, the third condition, the establishment of efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus, has not occurred. For this to happen, the H5N1 virus would need to improve its transmissibility among humans. This could occur either by reassortment or adaptive mutation.
Reassortment occurs when the genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection (infection with both viruses at the same time) of a human or other mammal. The result could be a fully transmissible pandemic virus, ie, a virus that can spread easily and directly between humans. A more gradual process of adaptive mutation, where the capability of a virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans.
What is the CDC doing to prepare for a possible pandemic of H5N1?
CDC is taking part in a number of pandemic prevention and preparedness activities, including:
* Provide leadership to the National Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Task Force, created in May 2005 by the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
* In collaboration with the Association of Public Health Laboratories on the status of training workshops for laboratories on the use of special laboratory (molecular) to identify H5.
* In collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and others to help States in their efforts to pandemic planning.
* Work with other agencies, such as the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration on antiviral stockpile.
* In collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to investigate influenza H5N1 among people (eg, in Vietnam) and to provide support for laboratory diagnostic work and training for local authorities .
* Execution of laboratory testing of H5N1 viruses.
* The launch of an initiative by $ 5.5 million to improve influenza surveillance in Asia.
* Holding or taking part in training sessions to improve local capacities to conduct surveillance of possible human cases of H5N1 and to detect influenza A virus subtype H5 using laboratory techniques.
* The development and distribution of reagents kits to detect the currently circulating influenza A H5N1 virus.
* CDC has developed and distributed the first test approved by FDA for the detection of H5 virus that first emerged in Asia in 2003.
CDC is working closely with WHO and the National Institutes of Health on safety testing of candidate vaccines and the development of new vaccine candidates for seed influenza A virus (H5N1) and other subtypes of influenza viruses A.
Virus of bird flu in animals
What animals can be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus?
In addition to humans and birds, we know that pigs, tigers, leopards, ferrets and domestic cats can be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. In addition, in early March 2006, Germany reported H5N1 infection in a stone marten (a weasel-like mammals). Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus that emerged in Asia in 2003 is evolving and it is possible that other mammals may be susceptible to infection as well. CDC is working closely with national and international partners to continually monitor the situation and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
Maybe domestic cats infected with avian influenza viruses?
Although domestic cats are generally not susceptible to infection with influenza type A, it is known that they can become infected and die (both experimentally and naturally) of the avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses , in a research lab / alignment may transmit the virus to other cats. It is not known whether domestic cats can transmit the virus to other domestic cats under natural conditions.
How cats are infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus?
All cases of influenza A (H5N1) in domestic cats reported to date have been associated with H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild birds or allegedly occurred by the cat ate raw infected birds.
How commonly cats were infected by avian influenza A (H5N1) virus?
During the avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreak that occurred from 2003 to 2004 in Asia, there were only several unofficial reports of fatal infections in domestic cats. Studies conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2004 showed that housecats could be infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) and the virus could spread to other housecats. In these experiments, the cats became ill after direct inoculation of virus isolated from a fatal human case, and following the feeding of infected raw chicken. In February 2006, Germany reported that a domestic cat had died from influenza A (H5N1). Chat living in the north of the island of Ruegen, where more than 100 wild birds died of the disease. The cat probably got sick by eating an infected bird.
What about infection in large cats, like tigers?
The big cats in captivity have been diagnosed with bird flu as well. In December 2003, two tigers and two leopards that were fed fresh chicken carcasses from a local slaughterhouse died at a zoo in Thailand. An investigation revealed avian influenza A (H5N1) in tissue samples. In February and March 2004, the virus has been detected in a clouded leopard and white tiger, respectively, who died in a zoo near Bangkok. In October 2004, 147 of 441 captive tigers at a zoo in Thailand died or were euthanatized as a result of infection after being fed fresh chicken carcasses. Cats are considered to have been ill from eating raw meat infected. Results of a subsequent investigation suggested that at least some tiger-tiger transmission occurred in this establishment.
Can cats spread H5N1 to people?
There is no evidence to date that cats can spread the H5N1 virus to humans. No cases of avian influenza in humans have been linked to exposure to sick cats, and no outbreaks among populations of cats have been reported. All of the A (H5N1) virus infection in cats reported to date appear to have been associated with outbreaks in domestic or wild birds and acquired through ingestion of raw meat from an infected bird.
What is the risk to humans or other species of cats infected with the H5N1 virus of bird flu?
There is no evidence to date that cats can spread the H5N1 virus to humans. No cases of avian influenza in humans have been linked to exposure to sick cats, and no outbreaks among populations of cats have been reported. All of the A (H5N1) virus infection in cats reported to date appear to have been associated with outbreaks in domestic or wild birds and acquired through ingestion of raw meat infected.
What is the risk that a cat in the United States are infected with the A (H5N1) virus?
As long as there is no influenza A (H5N1) in the United States, there is no risk of a cat US are infected with the disease. The virus circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa has not yet entered the United States. CDC is working closely with national and international partners to continually monitor the situation and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
If avian influenza A (H5N1) is identified in the United States, how can I protect my cat?
As long as there is no H5N1 influenza in the United States, at this time there is no danger of a US cat becoming infected with the disease. In Europe, however, where the H5N1 virus has been reported in wild birds, poultry, several cats, and a stone marten (a member of the weasel family), the European Centre for Prevention and Disease Control has issued preliminary recommendations for owners of cats living in the affected areas H5N1. In addition, the Food and Agriculture has developed guidelines for areas where the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus has been diagnosed or is suspected in poultry or wild birds.
Where can I find more information on the avian influenza virus in cats?
For more information on avian influenza in cats, see Avian influenza - Frequently Asked Questions (from the American Veterinary Medical Association) and H5N1 in Cats (from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).
Maybe dogs infected with avian flu?
While dogs are not usually susceptible to avian influenza virus, avian influenza A (H5N1) virus that emerged in Asia in 2003 has been documented to infect other carnivorous species (for example, cats, tigers, leopards and stone martens). This has raised concern that this strain of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus may be capable of infecting dogs. An unpublished study conducted in 2005 by the National Institute of Animal Health in Bangkok indicated that the dogs could be infected with the virus, but no associated disease was detected. This limited information is not enough to determine definitively whether dogs are susceptible to the virus. CDC is coordinating with the USDA, veterinary associations, and other partners nationally and internationally on this issue and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
How dogs are infected by avian influenza A (H5N1)?
There is not enough information available about avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in dogs to know how the infection occurs. Affected domestic cats in Europe appear to have become infected by feeding on infected poultry or raw wild birds. If dogs are susceptible to avian influenza A (H5N1), infection may be by the same route.
What is the current risk that a dog in the United States are infected with avian influenza A (H5N1)?
As long as there is no influenza A (H5N1) in the United States, there is no risk of a dog US are infected with the disease. The virus circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa has not yet entered the United States. CDC is working closely with national and international partners to continually monitor the situation and will provide additional information to the public as soon as they are available.
Wednesday, 13 February 2008
Diposting oleh Indra di Wednesday, February 13, 2008